The workshop will take place on June 23rd in room 2945 (McLean Management Studies Lab) at the SFU Harbour Centre in
Downtown Vancouver.
8:00  Breakfast: coffee and pastries 
8:50  Opening remarks 
8:55 
Invited lecture:
Query Learning of Omega Regular Languages
Omega languages, i.e. languages of infinite words (or of infinite trees), play an important role in modeling, verification and synthesis of reactive systems.
While query learning of regular languages of finite words can be done in polynomial time using a polynomial number of membership and equivalence queries, there is no known polynomial learning algorithm for the full class of omega regular languages.
In this talk we will discuss the obstacles in obtaining a polynomial learning algorithm and go through stateofthe art results on learning of regular languages of infinite words and of infinite trees.

9:45 
Weighted Automata Extraction from Recurrent Neural Networks via Regression on State Spaces (link to paper)
(Takamasa Okudono, Masaki Waga, Taro Sekiyama and Ichiro Hasuo)
We present a method to extract a weighted finite automaton (WFA) from a recurrent neural network (RNN).
Our algorithm is based on the WFA learning algorithm by Balle and Mohri, which is in turn an extension of Angluin’s classic L^{∗} algorithm.
Our technical novelty is in the use of regression methods for the socalled equivalence queries, thus exploiting the internal state space of an RNN.
This way we achieve a quantitative extension of the recent work by Weiss, Goldberg and Yahav that extracts DFAs.
Experiments demonstrate that our algorithm’s practicality.

10:10  Coffee break 
10:40 
Invited lecture:
Structured Prediction: The Power of Statistical Relational Learning
From information integration to scientific discovery to computational social science, we need machine learning methods that are able to exploit both the inherent uncertainty and the innate structure in a domain.
Statistical relational learning (SRL) is a subfield that builds on principles from probability theory and statistics to address uncertainty while incorporating tools from knowledge representation and logic to represent structure.
In this talk, I will give a brief introduction to SRL, present templates for common structured prediction problems, and describe modeling approaches that mix logic, probabilistic inference and latent variables.
I’ll overview our recent work on probabilistic soft logic (PSL), an SRL framework for largescale collective, probabilistic reasoning in relational domains.
I’ll close by highlighting emerging opportunities (and challenges) in realizing the effectiveness of data and structure for knowledge discovery.

11:30 
Learning with Partially Ordered Representations (link to paper)
(Jane Chandlee, Remi Eyraud, Jeffrey Heinz, Adam Jardine and Jonathan Rawski)
This paper examines the characterization and learning of grammars defined with enriched representational models.
Modeltheoretic approaches to formal language theory have traditionally assumed that each position in a string belongs to exactly one unary relation.
We consider unconventional string models where positions can have multiple, shared properties, which are useful in many applications.
We show the structures given by these models are partially ordered, and present a learning algorithm which exploits this ordering relation to effectively prune the hypothesis space.
We prove this learning algorithm, which takes positive examples as input, finds the most general grammar which covers the data.

11:55 
Automatic Inference of Minimalist Grammars using an SMTSolver (link to paper)
(Sagar Indurkhya)
We introduce (1) a novel parser for Minimalist Grammars (MG), encoded as a system of firstorder logic formulae that may be evaluated using an SMTsolver, and (2) a novel procedure for inferring Minimalist Grammars using this parser.
The input to this procedure is a sequence of sentences that have been annotated with syntactic relations such as semantic role labels (connecting arguments to predicates) and subjectverb agreement.
The output of this procedure is a set of minimalist grammars, each of which is able to parse the sentences in the input sequence such that the parse for a sentence has the same syntactic relations as those specified in the annotation for that sentence.
We applied this procedure to a set of sentences annotated with syntactic relations and evaluated the inferred grammars using cost functions inspired by the Minimum Description Length principle and the Subset principle.
Inferred grammars that were optimal with respect to certain combinations of these cost functions were found to align with contemporary theories of syntax.

12:20  Lunch 
13:50 
Invited lecture:
Planning under Partial Observability: A Betrothal of Formal Verification and Machine Learning
The subject of this talk are planning problems where agents operate inside environments that are subject to uncertainties and partial observability.
Such problems are naturally modelled by partially observable MDPs (POMDPs).
The goal is to compute a strategy for an agent that is guaranteed to satisfy certain safety or performance specifications.
We discuss several approaches, ranging from a gamebased abstraction framework for POMDPs, the computation of finitememory controllers, and the employment of recurrent neural networks to efficiently synthesize provably correct strategies.
Moreover, we consider preliminary work on actively including humans into the synthesis processes, and what challenges arise.

14:40 
Invited lecture:
Approximate Minimization and Metrics for Weighted Finite Automata
Weighted finite automata (WFA) are ordinary automata defined over vector spaces.
They have been used in a variety of settings related to natural language processing and machine learning.
Probabilistic automata, hidden Markov models, partially observable Markov decision processes are all instances of WFA.
As far back as the 1960s Schutzenberger had developed a minimization algorithm for WFA.
More recently Alexandra Silva and her group at UCL developed a categorical perspective on automata learning which has allowed them to generalize the Angluin automata learning algorithm to a variety of settings including the case of WFA which had been done earlier by other researchers under various names.
Importantly, Silva's work shows a tight connection between automata learning and minimization.
In recent work with Borja de Balle and Doina Precup, we developed a notion of approximate minimization for WFA.
Shortly thereafter, Borja, Pascale Gourdeau and I developed a notion of bisimulation metric between weighted automata.
In this survey talk I will quickly review the notion of bisimulation and metrics.
I will then specialize to bisimulation for WFA.
I will then describe the work on approximate bisimulation and on metrics.

15:30  Coffee break 
15:50 
Inferring Optimal Decision Trees (link to paper)
(Florent Avellaneda)
Inferring a decision tree from a given dataset is one of the classic problems in machine learning.
This problem consists of buildings, from a labelled dataset, a tree such that each node corresponds to a class and a path between the tree root, and a leaf corresponds to a conjunction of features to be satisfied in this class.
Following the principle of parsimony, we want to infer a minimal tree consistent with the dataset.
Unfortunately, inferring an optimal decision tree is known to be NPcomplete for several definitions of optimality.
Hence, the majority of existing approaches relies on heuristics, and as for the few exact inference approaches, they do not work on large data sets.
In this paper, we propose a novel approach for inferring a decision tree of a minimum depth based on the incremental generation of Boolean formula.
The experimental results indicate that it scales sufficiently well and the time it takes to run grows slowly with the size of dataset.

16:15 
Learning of Procedural Systems: Counterexample Projection and Decomposition (link to paper)
(Markus Frohme and Bernhard Steffen)
Our recently developed active automata learning algorithm for systems of procedural automata (SPAs) splits the inference of a contextfree/procedural system into a simultaneous inference of individual DFAs for each of the involved procedures.
This paper concretizes two essential features of our algorithm: counterexample projection and counterexample decomposition, which can be considered the technical key for achieving a modular learning algorithm of high efficiency.

16:40 
Improving Model Inference in Industry by Combining Active and Passive Learning (link to paper)
(Kousar Aslam, Loek Cleophas, Nan Yang, Ramon Schiffelers, Leonard Lensink, Dennis Hendriks and Alexander Serebrenik)
Inferring behavioral models (e.g., state machines) of software systems is an important element of reengineering activities.
Model inference techniques can be categorized as active or passive learning, constructing models by (dynamically) interacting with systems or (statically) analyzing traces, respectively.
Application of those techniques in the industry is, however, hindered by the tradeoff between learning time and completeness achieved (active learning) or by incomplete input logs (passive learning).
We investigate the learning time/completeness achieved tradeoff of active learning at ASML, provider of lithography systems for the semiconductor industry.
To resolve the tradeoff we advocate extending active learning with execution logs and passive learning results.
We apply the extended approach to eighteen components used in ASML TWINSCAN lithography machines.
Compared to traditional active learning, our approach significantly reduces the active learning time.
Moreover, it is capable of learning the behavior missed by the traditional active learning approach.

17:05  Workshop ends 